The combination contains citicoline and piracetam which is generally prescribed for memory enhancement, neurological and cognitive disorder, Parkinsonism and Alzheimer disorder. These drugs are nutrients and acts as cognition enhancing supplements, and are recommended as part of treatment regimens at some aging clinics. Citicoline has been shown to improve memory and other cognitive functions in patients with chronic cerebrovascular disease or dementia and in old people suffering from memory deficit. Piracetam is a drug which enhances cognition and memory, slows brain aging, increases oxygen and blood flow to the brain, improves Alzheimer's and aids in stroke recovery and related conditions. Piracetam and citicoline stimulate thought without peripheral nervous system stimulation. Citicoline alone gives a lift and then a depression but not when taken along with piracetam. Whereas piracetam induced headache is reduced when taken along with citicoline.

● Memory enhancement
● Neurological and cognitive disorder
● Parkinsonism
● Alzheimer

Mechanism of Action

The neuroprotective effects exhibited by citicoline may be due to its preservation of cardiolipin and sphingomyelin, preservation of arachidonic acid content of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, partial restoration of phosphatidylcholine levels, and stimulation of glutathione synthesis and glutathione reductase activity. Citicoline's effects may also be explained by the reduction of phospholipase A2 activity. Citicoline increases phosphatidylcholine synthesis. The mechanism for this may be:
By converting 1, 2-diacylglycerol into phosphatidylcholine
Stimulating the synthesis of SAMe, which aids in membrane stabilization and reduces levels of arachidonic acid. This is especially important after an ischemia, when arachidonic acid levels are elevated.
The brain preferentially uses choline to synthesize acetylcholine. This limits the amount of choline available to synthesize phosphatidylcholine. When the availability of choline is low or the need for acetylcholine increases, phospholipids containing choline can be catabolized from neuronal membranes. These phospholipids include sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine. Supplementation with citicoline can increase the amount of choline available for acetylcholine synthesis and aid in rebuilding membrane phospholipid stores after depletion. Citicoline decreases phospholipase stimulation. This can lower levels of hydroxyl radicals produced after an ischemia and prevent cardiolipin from being catabolized by phospholipase A2. It can also work to restore cardiolipin levels in the inner mitochondrial membrane.

Citicoline shows more than 90% oral bioavailability. Plasma levels peak one hour after oral ingestion, and a majority of the citicoline is excreted as CO2 in respiration, and again 24 hours after ingestion, where the remaining citicoline is excreted through urine.

Piracetam modulates the cholinergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, and glutamatergic neurotransmission although the drug does not display high affinity to any of the associated receptors (Ki >10μM). Piracetam interacts with the polar heads in the phospholipids membrane and the resulting mobile drug-lipid complexes are thought to reorganize the lipids and influence membrane function and fluidity 1. Such interaction has been reported in a study that investigated the effects of neuronal outgrowth induced by beta amyloid peptides; while amyloid peptides cause lipid disorganization within the cell membranes leading to neuronal death, piracetam demonstrated to decrease the destabilizing effects of amyloid peptide.

Piracetam is rapidly and extensively absorbed following oral administration with the peak plasma concentration is reached within 1 hour after dosing in fasted subjects. Volume of distribution is approximately 0.6L/kg. Piracetam may cross the blood-brain barrier as it was measured in the cerebrospinal fluid following intravenous administration 4. Piracetam diffuses to all tissues except adipose tissues, crosses placental barrier and penetrates the membranes of isolated red blood cells. Piracetam is not reported to be bound to plasma proteins. As large proportion of total piracetam administered is excreted as unchanged drug, there is no known major metabolism of piracetam. Piracetam is predominantly excreted via renal elimination, where about 80-100% of the total dose is recovered in the urine. Approximately 90% of the dose of piracetam is excreted in the urine as unchanged drug. The plasma half-life of piracetam is approximately 5 hours following oral or intravenous administration.

Side Effects
The common side effects include:
● Weight gain
● Hyperactivity
● Stomach pain
● Nervousness
● Diarrhea
● Decreased blood pressure.